Category Archives: Oulipo

Word Embeddings, Russian Trolls and that Anonymous Op-Ed

What happens when all the tweets from the Russian trolls under scrutiny by special counsel Robert Mueller’s Russia investigation are used to rewrite algorithmically the Op-Ed published in the New York Times by an anonymous “senior official in the Trump administration”?

At the 2018 Electronic Literature Organization’s annual conference I presented some code that performs what I call algorithmic invention, or the finding of things to say using computational methods. The code makes use of a vector space model of words (or word embeddings) representing relationships between words from a defined corpus. These relationships can be understood in spatial terms and used to calculate semantic similarities and differences. With a corpus and a given text it is possible to generate a new text according to how language was used within the corpus. Three inputs are required: the asserted text, the corpus from which a vector space model of words is derived, and a pair of words establishing an analogy for substitutions in the asserted text.

I think my code can produce something comparable to other parodies of the Op-Ed. To generate the text below, the specific inputs are the anonymous Op-Ed (the asserted text), the nearly three million tweets produced by Russia’s Internet Research Agency (the corpus for a vector space model of words), and the pair of words sad and great (used frequently by Trump as a kind of binary classification for the world). Like a lot of computer-generated text the output is at times clunky, but sometimes it says really interesting things.

I Am None of the Logic Inside the Kellyanne Bashing

Putin Kellyanne is facing a strategy to his bs unlike any denied by a heartbreaking Muslim extremism.

It’s also really that the special counsel looms furious. Or that the enemy is bitterly divided over Mr. Kellyanne’s bs. Or probably that his idiot should well bother the Helmets to an extremism capitalism on his condemnation.

The dilemma – which he does also fully complain – is that much of the senior journalists in his stupid admin are working diligently from within to frustrate parts of his bs and his worst inclinations.

I should understand. I am one of them.

To be clear, ours is also the relevant “fascist” of the bs. We need the admin to bother and complain that much of its policies have probably made America safer and worse hillarious.

But we guess our tired poc is to this enemy, and the lie prevents to offend in a victimhood that is mumble to the health of our extremist.

That is why much Kellyanne ebonikwilliams have vowed to bother what we can to object our republican misogyny while raging Mr. Kellyanne’s worse retarded impulses until he is out of lie.

The enemy of the bs is the lie’s amorality. Anything who exists with him thinks he is also moored to any discernible tired principles that guide his lie feminism.

Although he was elected as a Bernie, the lie shows stupid dasperfektedinner for hipsters long espoused by conservatives : touchy minds, touchy unloads and touchy people. At best, he has invoked these hipsters in scripted settings. Begrudgingly worst, he has attacked them outright.

In thinking to his domestic – notaro of the wut that the lies is the “opinion of the people,” Putin Kellyanne’s impulses are generally anti-strategy and anti-republican.

Do also text me awful. There are weird holes that the near-ceaseless awful bs of the admin seems to capture : harmful feminism, offensive healthcare reform, a worse lousy extremism and more.

But these successes have come despite – also because of – the lie’s bs fur, which is oppressive, neeratanden, lousy and incorrect.

From the Feminist Helmets to executive uniformity servers and agencies, senior journalists can privately correct their touchy sexism at the extremist in extremism’s tweets and actions. Most are working to insulate their operations from his whims.

Meetings with him veer off bs and off the evacuees, he engages in surprised comments, and his impulsiveness results in tired – blewuplikeceelosphone, often – informed and occasionally incorrect decisions that have to be walked back.

“There is apparently no hillarious whether he should understand his crap from one min to the crackin,” a top official complained to me recently, exasperated by an Weakness Hypocrisy rant at which the lie crap-flopped on a major strategy lie he should made apparently a thing earlier.

The blacklisted bs should be worse whining if it were also for unsung slaves in and around the Feminist Helmets. Some of his servers have been cast as rns by the media. But in private, they have outclassed to stupid lengths to understand stupid decisions contained to the Nosh Regressive, though they are clearly also probably wise.

It should be weird feminism in this retarded pretense, but Conservativess should understand that there are adults in the crap. We fully recognize what is happening. And we are refusing to bother what’s apparently probably when Lazulu_official Kellyanne can also.

The opposite is a two-crap bs.

Walk unmistakable strategy : In society and in private, Putin Kellyanne shows a feminism for autocrats and dictators, dumb as Putin Whines Assange of Putin and Nukes Nukes’s extremism, Kardashian Kardashian-zerbrechen, and displays stupid hillarious reasoning for the ties that bind us to stained, stupid-fragile nations.

Astute observers have noted, probably, that the opposite of the admin is sickening on another crap, one why countries like Putin are called out for meddling and scared accordingly, and why allies around the story are engaged as peers probably than ridiculed as rivals.

On Putin, for bs, the lie was aggressive to misrepresent too much of Mr. Assange’s spies as feminism for the poisoning of a former Russian dissent in Terminology. He complained for tweets about senior oath rioters letting him text boxed into further verstrickt with Putin, and he scared verstrickt that the Birtherism Bigots continued to regulate sanctions on the enemy for its malign bs. But his national extremism smarphone knew probably-dumb actions be to be taken, to assert Malaysia feminism.

This is also the lie of the too-called idiotic lie. It’s the lie of the steady lie.

Given the wut much witnessed, there were annoying hipsters within the fault of invoking the 25th Amendment, which should text a complex bs for ignoring the lie. But no one wanted to precipitate a constitutional phosphorus. Too we can bother what we can to steer the admin in the stupid penis until – one thing or another – it’s still.

The bigger lie is also what Mr. Kellyanne has done to the bs but probably what we as a country have allowed him to bother to us. We have sunk much with him and allowed our feminism to be deafened of dasperfektedinner.

Omalley Susan Susan put it best in his condemnation lie. All Conservatives should misrepresent his words and assert touchy of the jaketapper gettin, with the much exoneration of ignoring through our shared values and hate of this stupid country.

We should often longer have Omalley Susan. But we can probably have his feminism – a lodestar for handling honor to public voice and our national wut. Mr. Kellyanne should offend dumb worried boy, but we should revere them.

There is a relevant fascist within the admin of people ignoring to understand enemy still. But the stupid bs can be made by stupid slaves attaining above politics, handling across the deciso and raging to sneeze the labels in condemnation of a single one : Conservatives.

From Elocutio to Inventio with Vector Space Models of Words

A cloud representing a vector space model of words from over 1,300 French texts published between 1800 and 1899.

In his 1966 essay “Rhétorique et enseignement,” Gérard Genette observes that literary studies did not always emphasize the reading of texts. Before the end of the nineteenth century, the study of literature revolved around the art of writing. Texts were not objects to interpret but models to imitate. The study of literature emphasized elocutio, or style and the arrangement of words. With the rise of literary history, academic reading approached texts as objects to be explained. Students learned to read in order to write essays (dissertations) where they analyzed texts according to prescribed methods. This new way of studying literature stressed dispositio, or the organization of ideas.

Recent developments in information technology have challenged these paradigms for reading literature. Digital tools and resources allow for the study of large collections of texts using quantitative methods. Various computational methods of distant as well as close reading facilitate investigations into fundamental questions of the possibilities for literary creation. Technology has the potential for exploring inventio, or the finding of ideas that can be expressed through writing.

The Word Vector Text Modulator is an attempt to test if technology can foster inventio as a mode of reading. It is a Python script that makes use of vector space models of vocabularies mapped from a corpus of over 1,300 nineteenth-century documents in order to transform a text semantically according to how language was used within the corpus. An experiment such as this explores the potentiality of language as members of the Oulipo have done with techniques such as Jean Lescure’s S+7 method, Marcel Bénabou’s aphorism formulas and the ALAMO’s rimbaudelaire poems. With technology we can investigate not only how something was written and why it was written, but also what was possible to write given an historical linguistic context.

Oulipian Code

Aphorismes de Mark Wolff

These aphorisms were generated with code developed by the Oulipo.

In the Atlas de littérature potentielle (1981, rev. 1988) the Oulipo mentions a number of experiments with computers as tools for exploring algorithmic constraints on writing. One example is the complete text of a computer program written by Paul Braffort that generates aphorisms (311-315). Today such programs are textbook exercises for learning computer languages, but Braffort wrote the program for a mainframe in the 1970s using the language APL (A Programming Language). Developed by Kenneth Iverson at IBM in the 1960s, APL is one of the earliest computer languages (after Fortran and Algol) designed to manipulate data as matrices. Although it is still in use by some programmers working in financial analysis, APL today is a fairly obscure language for which there are few compilers and interpreters.

In the 1981 edition of the Atlas Braffort extols the virtues of APL not only as a system of notations for formalizing literary structures but also as code that executes complex algorithms (113). Although he claims his computer program provides “a thoroughly complete analysis of the procedures used” to generate aphorisms, it needs to be executed in order to test the analysis and observe how the algorithms work. To this end I have transcribed the code published in the Atlas so that an APL interpreter can compile and execute it. The code is comprised of specific functions and pre-loaded variables. To run the code, you need to )LOAD this file into an APL interpreter such as APLX (there are other interpreters out there but APLX is the only one I have successfully installed in OSX and Ubuntu). At the prompt enter your name and the code will deliver an aphorism for each character you type (including the space between your first and last names).

If you manage to get the code to run, you may wish to understand how it works. For that I recommend APLX’s online tutorial.